Possible Reasons for Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels in Self-reported Ex-Smokers

Kotz, D.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jan 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) is often used to validate self-reported nonsmoking in clinical settings and research studies. It sometimes occurs that a person reports to have quit smoking, whereas the CO measurement classifies him/her as a smoker. This commentary summarizes possible explanations for this discrepancy and briefly discusses what to do when there is reason to believe that the CO measurement is incorrect.

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